Closing the Immunisation Gap: Immunisation Coverage Evaluation in Kollam Corporation, Kerala
Objectives: The objective of the current study was to assess the immunization coverage and various socio-demographic factors affecting the same in the urban population of Kollam Corporation.
Methodology: The 30*7 cluster sampling method of WHO was used for evaluation of immunization coverage. Seven subjects between age group of 12–23 months were selected from each of the 30 clusters. A child between 12–23 months old who received one BCG, three doses of pentavalent, three doses of OPV and a measles vaccine was considered as fully immunized; as unimmunized if received none of these vaccines and partially immunized if some dose given but immunization not complete. The collected data was numerically coded and entered in Microsoft Excel 2007, and then transferred to the SPSS (ver. 17). Bivariate and Multivariate analysis were conducted to identify independent predictors of immunization coverage.
Results: Eight (3.8%) children were partially immunized, while everybody had received at least one vaccine. The proportion of children fully immunized was 96.2% [95% CI 93.5- 98.8%]. The coverage of hepatitis B zero dose was 86.2%. Around 20 % of children born at a private hospital and 8% of the children born at a Government hospital had not received hepatitis B zero dose (p 0.008). About 50% of children had not received a dose of vitamin A in their first year of life. In the final model, lower educational status of mother (<10th standard) and not obtained a Government Immunization card during antenatal period were identified as factors associated with the partial immunization status of children.
Conclusion: There are partially immunized children in the community and appropriate action is to be taken. Coverage of vitamin A and hepatitis B zero doses need improvement.