Factors associated with Reactive Airway Disease in under 5 Children attending SAT Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram
Background: Pediatric Reactive Airway Disease is a chronic, multifactorial, airway disease that affects 5-15% of children worldwide. Though the prevalence is more in the developed countries, the developing countries have a higher total burden of the disease due to differences in population. In India this burden is about 15 million among children. The scenario in Kerala is also not very different. Prevalence rates and mortality rates of RAD are on the rise in Kerala
Objective: To study the factors associated with Reactive Airway Disease in Under 5 children attending Sree Avittom Tirunal (SAT) Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram
Method: The study adopts a case control study design, where the characteristics of each group are described and a comparison of those characteristics is made at a later stage. The study variables include demographic profile of the respondent, socio economic status of the parents, antenatal, natal and postnatal history, past medical conditions, environmental factors and specific triggers of RAD. The study has covered a sample size of 50 respondents from each group. The cases were selected from among the children less than 5 years of age diagnosed with RAD attending SAT hospital during the period of our study. The controls were selected by individual matching taking into account the gender and age of each case. Quantitative variables are expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation and qualitative variables in terms of proportions.
Results: It has been observed that Immunization status of the child ( p 0.006), Antenatal complications of the mother( p 0.002), Exclusive breastfeeding( 0.001), formula feeds, bottle feeding( p<0.005), family history of asthma( p<0.005), exposure to irritants like dust, carpets, curtains, mosquito repellants, incense sticks( p<0.005), history of atopic dermatitis(p 0.006), changes in weather conditions and excessive physical exertion( p<0.005) increased the risk of RAD attacks among cases as compared to controls.
Conclusion: After analysis Family History, Passive Smoking, lack of Exclusive breast feeding and Past Respiratory Infections showed significant association with RAD. Approaches like Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative to promote Exclusive breast feeding, Early diagnosis and treatment of Respiratory Infections, Prevention of passive smoking, Provision of proper smoke outlet and prevention of exposure to triggers can control attacks of Reactive Airway Disease.